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Sundarbans -The largest mangrove forest of the world

 

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Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forests in the coastal saline environments in the world’s largest integrated forest. This forest is located in the estuary of the Brahmaputra Basin sea border and extends across Bangladesh and India’s West Bengal. Covers 10,000 square kilometers to 6,000 square kilometers, about the development of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh in 1997 was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Although parts of Bangladesh and the Indian part of the UNESCO world heritage uninterrupted land form index are listed under different names in the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park, named respectively. Sunderbans is involved reticulated marine stream, mud and mangrove forests spies smaller islands, including salinity. The area, in addition to the eponymous Royal Bengal Tiger, various kinds of birds, deer, crocodiles and snakes as well as fauna including numerous species known. According to the survey, and 30,000 deer are 500 tigers in the Sundarbans area now. Place on 21 May 199 in the Sunderbans has been recognized as the Ramsar Convention.

Royal Bengal Tiger

Royal Bengal Tiger

Geographic structure : Three of the world’s largest mangrove forest of the Ganges River as the Sundarbans ecosystem is complex enough. Across the two neighboring countries of Bangladesh and India, the larger part of the Sundarbans (6%) is located in the south-west side. South of the Bay; Balasore River and north along the east boundary of cultivated land density. Other than the main branches of the river waters across the elevated areas of the embankment and sloping land received by the largely tied. It was actually supposed to be about 16.700 square km area of ​​the Sundarbans (As in the previous 200 years). Decrease the current volume declines of approximately one-third of the previous. The total land area of ​​4,143 sq km (Including sand bank area of 42 sq km) and the river, creek and canal area of ​​1,874 sq km, including the rest of the water channels . Salt water and fresh water rivers include the Sundarbans. So come to the Ganges River fresh water, salt water, becoming bay of bangla in the middle of the area.

Due to the currents flow along the Bay of years of inter-overhead currents naturally be different from the average of the sediment has accumulated in the Sundarbans. Geographical structure of the delta and the water under the surface of the water has spread numerous mud walls and mud spies. It has more than the average height above sea level have a marginal grasslands, sand bank and the island, which has a canal across the net, Underwater mud walls, mud and accumulated sediment on the delta of the original. It ranges in height from 0.9 meters to 2.11 meters from sea level in the Sundarbans.

Here are the ingredients plays an important role in biological processes and animal diversity in the structure of marine subjects. Beaches, estuaries, permanent and temporary wetlands, mud spies, creek, dunes, like a pile of soil is made ​​up of varied here. Mangrove plant world itself contributes to the formation of new land. Again Inter water currents play an important role in the morphology of the plant world in the process. Who holds the sediment to form the seed layer for the horizontal sub rock. And evolution of the eolian dunes is controlled by have plenty of xerophytic and halophytic plants. Vine-leaves, grass and sedge sand and inorganic silt layer structure is stable.

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History : Mughal period (1203-1538) by the King took a lease of the whole of the Sundarbans. Legal changes have been fundamental changes in the history of invading desired mangrove forest in the world recognized as the first to come under the supervisory Sci. East India Company in 1757 by the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II After getting the title from the Sundarbans is the area of the map. Organizational management comes under forest in 1860 after the establishment of the Forest Department of India Bengali province.

The first Forest Management Division to have jurisdiction over the Sundarbans was established in 1869. Forest Act of 1965 (Section 8), in accordance with, a large part of the Sundarbans was declared as reserved forests in 1875-76. Within the next year, the rest of the bits stored in the forest gets recognition. The administration of the civilian authority, it goes to the remote control of the forest department. Later in 1879, the Forest Department was established as forest management and administration unit, which was the headquarters of Khulna. Sundarbans Forest Management Plan for the 1893-98 period is the first.

In 1911, the Sunderbans is labeled as wastland tracts, which have not been surveyed and will not ever again come under Survey. Meghna River estuary from the Hooghly River Estuary as far as 165 miles (266 km) across the area of the boundary is determined. The Parganas, Khulna and the three districts of the Inter J limit. 6526 square miles, including the whole of the area of ​​the reservoir is estimated to be (16902 km). The water was the most beautiful forest full of tigers and other infested with wild animals. This could be a very successful attempt to survey. Particular tree is very likely that the main beauty of the Sundarbans has been named (Heritiera fomes) the name. Available in solid wood from the boat, is used to create different things, including furniture. Throughout the Sundarbans rivers, canals, and divided by the creek, some of whom are both steamers and native boats were used as traffic routes are suitable for communication between Calcutta and the Brahmaputra basin.

Effects of climate change : Elements of the multidimensional nature of the Sundarbans along the coast, influenced by the structure, those are the setting, micro and macro cycles and maritime currents flowing long beach. That’s moving the coastal currents in different seasons. It varies due to tornadoes.

Through this, the loss of savings, although not yet possible to measure accurately, the changing nature of the earth to make a difference in magnitude. However, the stability of the whole system of mangrove forest in itself sufficient role. Bengal every monsoon season, the delta E is drowning, drowning most of the year, which covers about half the time. Comes primarily in the lower region of the basin sediments of the sea during monsoon events like character and result of the cyclone. Coming years, the residents of the Ganges River is the biggest sea-level rise that will be faced.

Due to a change in the direction of the high holy water in many of the Indian mangrove wet lands Saints have significantly reduced the flow of water from the late 19th century. Neo-tectonic motion of the Bengal Basin was at a slightly sloping, making holy water to the greater part of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. This part of India is much less than the amount of salinity in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. In 1990, one of the research papers have been called, “natural environmental degradation in the Himalayas or the” Green House “of the sea level rise due to the flooding in Bangladesh found no evidence that the situation has deteriorated there. Yadio, in 007 – “Climate Change and World Heritage lessons” of the UNESCO report that the man, the other 45 cm in sea Height has been increased, it is due to a range of categories, including the man can be destroyed 75 percent of the Sundarbans.

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